What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area. Typhoid fever affects more than 21 million people annually, with about 200,000 people dying from the disease. In Nigeria precisely, most people mistook thyphoid as malaria and thereby not getting the required and specific treatment to eliminate in totally.
How Do People Get Typhoid Fever?
Typhoid fever is contracted by drinking or eating the bacteria in contaminated food or water. People with acute illness can contaminate the surrounding water supply through stool, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria. Contamination of the water supply can, in turn, taint the food supply. The bacteria can survive for weeks in water or dried sewage.
About 3%-5% of people become carriers of the bacteria after the acute illness. Others suffer a very mild illness that goes unrecognized. These people may become long-term carriers of the bacteria -- even though they have no symptoms -- and be the source of new outbreaks of typhoid fever for many years.
How Is Typhoid Fever Detected?
After the ingestion of contaminated food or water, the bacteria gets into the small intestine and enter the bloodstream temporarily. The bacteria are carried by white blood cells in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, where they multiply and reenter the bloodstream. People develop symptoms, including fever, at this point. Bacteria invade the gallbladder, biliary system, and the lymphatic tissue of the bowel. Here, they multiply in high numbers. The bacteria pass into the intestinal tract and can be identified in stool samples. If a test result isn't clear, blood samples will be taken to make a diagnosis..
What Are the Symptoms of Typhoid Fever?
The breeding period is usually 1-2 weeks, and the duration of the illness is about 3-4 weeks. Symptoms include:
Generalized aches and pains
Fever as high as 104 degrees Farenheit
and abdominal pain and discomfort are common. The fever becomes constant. Improvement occurs in the third and fourth week in those without complications.
How Is Typhoid Fever Treated?
Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics which kill the Salmonella bacteria. Prior to the use of antibiotics, Several antibiotics are effective for the treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol was the original drug of choice for many years. Because of rare serious side effects, chloramphenicol has been replaced by other effective antibiotics.
Commonly prescribed antibiotics
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). In the United States, doctors often prescribe this for nonpregnant adults.
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin). This injectable antibiotic is an alternative for people who may not be candidates for ciprofloxacin, such as children,
In Nigeria, Drugs like Amoxil Beecham is one of the major drugs used for this defect. Drugs also includes
Amoxicillin (Trimox, Amoxil, Biomox)
Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS, Septra)